Back.gif (1607 bytes) Toc.gif (1438 bytes)

Appendix A. Proposed ILRI/ICRISAT/NARS Research Project on Genetic Improvement of Millet and Sorghum Crop Residues

Selected districts of the recommended domains

RD

State

Districts

1

Haryana

Bhiwani, Mahendranagar, Rohtak, Rewari, Gurgaon

1

Uttar Pradesh

Etawah, Agra, Aligarh, Banola, Etah, Mathura, Fiorozabad

2

Uttar Pradesh

Fatehpur, Banda, Hamirpur

1

Rajasthan

Barmer, Bikaner, Churu, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jalore, Jhunjhnu, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Pali, Sikar, Tonk, Ajmer, Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur, Sawai Madhopur, Sirohi

2

Rajasthan

Jhalawar, Kota

1

Gujarat

Ahmedabad, Amreli, Banaskantha, Bhavnagar, Jamnanagar, Junagarh, Kachchh, Rajkot, Surendranagar, Gandhinagar, Kheda, Mahensana,

2

Gujarat

Bharuch, Surat, Vadodara

2

Madhya Pradesh

Betul, Bhind, Chindwara, Dewas, East Nimar, Guna, Shajapur, Ujjain, West Nimar, Rajgarh, Morena

2

Maharashtra

Ahmednagar, Akola, Amaravathi, Aurangabad, Beed, Buldana, Chandrapur, Dhule, Jalgaon, Jalna, Latur, Nagpur, Nanded, Osmanabad, Parbhani, Pune, Solalpur, Wardha, Yavatmal, Kolhapur, Sanli, Satara

1

Maharashtra

Nashik

2

Andhra Pradesh

Anantapur, Kurnool, Adilabad, Cuddapah, Mahaboobnagar, Medak, Ranga Reddy

2

Karnataka

Belgaum, Bellary, Bidar, Bijapur, Dharwad, Gulbarga, Raichury, Mysore

2

Tamil Nadu

Salem, Chidambaranar, Dindigal Anna, Coimbatore, Trichy

Appendix B. Proposed ILRI/ICRISAT/NARS Research Project on Genetic Improvement of Millet and Sorghum Crop Residues

Estimated research timetable and costs


Cost category

Time spent on this research (%)

Yearly cost (US$)

Number of years

Total cost (US$)

1. Personnel

Principal Scientist: sorghum breeder

25

25,000

6

150,000

Principal Scientist: millet breeder

25

25,000

6

150,000

Principal Scientist: animal scientist

50

50,000

6

300,000

Research Associate: sorghum breeder

100

6,000

6

36,000

Research Associate: millet breeder

100

6,000

6

36,000

Research Associate: animal scientist

100

6,000

6

36,000

Research Associate: animal scientist

100

6,000

6

36,000

Research Associate: molecular biologist

100

6,000

6

36,000

2. Variable costs

In vivo + in vitro + chemical analysis

 

50,000

6

300,000

Sorghum + millet breeding field trials at three sites

 

30,000

6

180,000

Operating costs for markers’ work

   

1–2

37,000

3. Other costs

 

20,000

6

180,000

4. Site costs

Marker-assisted back-crossing programme at three sites

 

3,000

4

12,000

2 field assistants

 

8,000

4

32,000

4 field assistants

 

16,000

2

32,000

5. Fixed costs—Equipment

       

Animal scientist (infrared reflector)

 

150,000

 

150,000

DNA sequencer (API Prism Platform)

 

250,000

 

250,000

6. Collaborator costs (4 NARS)

 

Variable (staff and operating)

 

25,000

6

150,000

Fixed (equipment)

 

270,000

 

270,000

Total

 

952,000

 

2,373,000

Stage 1: Identification. Identification of traits for increased yield and quality of millet and sorghum stover, based on stover produced in multiple environments. Estimated length of time to outputs: 1.5–2.5 years.

Stage 2: Transfer. Transfer of identified traits into existing parents (i.e. the identified quality traits into elite, or high-yielding, disease resistance backgrounds); the final product goes to breeders in private and public sector. Estimated length of time to outputs: 2–5 years.

Assumption: Start working with collaborators and doing farmer participatory trials after 2 years.

Estimated research costs for the NARS

1. NRCS (National Research Centre for Sorghum) and Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU), Hyderabad

2. MPKV (Mahatma Phule Kristini Vidyapeeth), Rahuri and Bharatiya Agro-Industries Foundation (BAIF), Pune

3. Chaudhury Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University (CCSHAU) and the Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes (CIRB), Hisar

4. NRCS on pearl millet and the Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur

Cost per centre per year

Number

% time

Rs

US$

Principal scientist (breeding)  

1

0.1

30,000

775

Senior scientist (breeding)  

1

0.5

125,000

3,231

Senior scientist (biochemistry)

1

0.3

75,000

1,939

Senior scientist (biotechnology)

1

0.3

75,000

1,938

Senior scientist (animal science)

1

0.4

100,000

2,585

Research associates

3

1

180,000

4,652

Contractual skilled labour

7

140,000

3,619

Travelling allowance

100,000

3,101

Operating costs

250,000

6,462

Seminars/consultancy/training

150,000

3,877

Total yearly cost per centre

1,225,000

32,179

Total costs at four locations

4,900,000

128,716

Assuming: Four locations 8 years

Total NARS costs in 8 years

1,029,728

Rs = Rupees.

Appendix C. Results of feed–animal performance model

Table A3.1. Estimated increase in milk production of cattle and buffalo from a 1% unit increase in digestibility of sorghum and/or millet residues.

 

Milk yield—buffalo

 

Milk yield—cows


District

Base (kg/year)

Predicted (kg/year)

Increase (%)

 

Base (kg/year)

Predicted (kg/year)

Increase (%)

Nanded

1649

1710

3.7

 

1031

1069

3.7

Akola

2690

2728

1.4

 

2022

2038

0.8

Pune

       

1342

1377

2.6

Beed

2152

2208

2.6

 

1843

1904

3.3

Solapur

1098

1177

7.2

 

409

451

10.3

Khandwa

2359

2737

0.6

 

1281

1295

1.1

Bijapur

1673

1728

3.3

 

1079

1113

3.2

Mahbubnagar

1312

1363

3.9

 

732

752

2.8

Average increase

   

3.2

     

3.4

Rewari

1032

1087

5.3

 

616

676

9.8

Mehsana

2103

2154

2.4

 

1326

1371

3.4

Bhavnagar

1917

1980

3.3

 

858

943

9.9

Alwar

1382

1425

3.1

 

820

935

14

Pali

785

878

11.8

 

633

740

16.9

Barmer

971

1068

10

       

Jodhpur

1252

135

8

 

558

664

19

Mathura

1002

1058

5.6

 

210

214

1.8

Average increase

   

6.3

     

10.7

 

Table A3.2.  Estimated increase in growth of cattle and buffalo and increases in draft hours of bullocks from a 1% unit increase in digestibility of sorghum and/or millet straw.

 

Growth

 

Draft hours


District

Base
(kg/year)

Predicted
(kg/year)

Increase
(%)

 

Base
(h/year)

Predicted
(h/year)

Increase
(%)

Nanded

34

39.8

17.6

 

576.6

630.7

9.5

Akola

37.2

42.5

16.2

 

1038.5

1078.5

3.8

Pune

83

85.2

2.4

 

307.6

364.4

18.3

Beed

72.4

76.7

6.9

 

811

855.6

5.5

Solapur

             

Khandwa

29.5

31.3

3.3

 

745.8

769.1

3.1

Bijapur

49

53.4

8.2

 

532.8

588.4

10.4

Mahbubnagar

45.9

47.8

4.3

 

584.3

596.8

2.2

 Average increase

   

8.4

     

7.5

Appendix D. Acronyms and abbreviations

ANGRAU Acharya N G Agricultural University

ARC Australian Research Centre

BAIF Bharatiya Agro-Industries Foundation

Bmr Brown mid-rib

CAZRI Central Arid Zone Research Institute

CCSHAU Chaudhury Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University

CIP Centro Internacional de la Papa (International Potato Center)

CIRB Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes

CP Crude protein

DFID Department for International Development (UK)

DM Dry matter

DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid

DOM Digestible organic matter

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

GIS Geographic information system

HYV High yielding variety

ICAR Indian Council of Agricultural Research

ICRISAT International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

ILRI International Livestock Research Institute

IRR Internal rate of return

ISPA Indo-Swiss Project Andhra Pradesh

JAVA Java feed–animal performance simulation model

MAS Marker-assisted selection

ME Metabolisable energy

MPKV Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth

NARS National agricultural research system

NDDB National Dairy Development Board

NPV Net present value

NRC National Research Centre

NRCS National Research Centre for Sorghum

NRI Natural Resources Institute

QTL Quantitative trait loci

RD Recommendation domain

SAT Semi-arid tropics

TLU Tropical livestock unit

Back.gif (1607 bytes) Toc.gif (1438 bytes)