Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page


Dairy goat research and extension at Sokoine University of Agriculture (lowlands) and Mgeta (highlands) areas of Tanzania

L.A. Mtenga and G.C. Kifaro

Department of Animal Science and Production
Sokoine University of Agriculture
P.O. Box 3004, Morogoro, Tanzania


Introduction
Potential of dairy goats in Tanzania
Previous research on dairy goats in Tanzania
Objectives of the current goat research programme
Development of the research programme
Evolution and development of the project at SUA (on-station)
Results and observations
Evaluation of the research programme (on-station)
Mgeta (on-farm)
Importance of the research programme
Future research programmes
References


Summary

In 1982, a research project on the evaluation of introduced Norwegian goats and their crosses with indigenous goats was initiated at Morogoro (low altitude 600 m), Tanzania. After several years of study some of the pure Norwegian goats and their crosses were introduced on-farm in Mgeta (high altitude 1600 m where rainfall is also higher).

The performance of pure Norwegian dairy goats at the low altitude was not viable. However, the F1 crosses between the indigenous and the Norwegian goats did well at this site, being able to reproduce and produce moderate levels of milk. The pure-bred Norwegian goats and their crosses in Mgeta area at a high altitude thrived and produced well. It is apparent that besides the favourable climate, the farmers fed and managed the animals better than on-station.

During the project, 17 undergraduates received practical training in research methodologies and four MSc and two PhD candidates completed their research theses within the project, thus helping to strengthen the research capability of the country. At the grass-root level the introduction of an improved goat package of technology was accepted in the densely populated high-altitude area. It is likely that the introduced goat will, in the long run, have a major impact on the supply of milk and increase the income of the rural population.

Introduction

Tanzania has an animal population of 12.512 million cattle, 6.444 million goats and 3.08 million sheep (MALD, 1986). In 1984 the dairy herd consisted of about 143,400 cattle which was estimated to supply less than 3% of Tanzania's milk needs. Approximately 97% of the milk consumed in the country is produced by the traditional herd which is mainly comprised of the Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu (TSZ). It is now estimated that the dairy herd has increased to 180,000 head of cattle.

Attempts have been made by various authors to establish the amount of milk produced in Tanzania and its consumption pattern. For example, Kurwijila (1988) estimated milk yield from the zebu herd to be 401.664 million litres while grade cattle produced only 67.025 million litres. However, milk production figures are variable depending on authors and/or assumptions made in deriving the figures. Milk production from other ruminant species in the Tanzanian experience is considered negligible.

Previously the milk consumption per capita of Tanzanians was believed to be 24.4 litres a year targeted to rise to 28.0 litres by the year 1990. In 1987, the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development (MALD, 1987) reported an annual consumption of 15 litres a person which translates to a mere 40 ml a person a day. The National Food Strategy plans to double this per capita consumption to 30 litres a year by the year 2000; the implication is that milk supply will double correspondingly. Unfortunately, improvement to the traditional agricultural sub-sector providing most of the milk is very slow. To increase milk production, other milk-producing species of livestock (besides cattle) have to be utilised; hence it was in this light that the potential of dairy goats was assessed.

Potential of dairy goats in Tanzania

It was difficult to estimate the number of dairy goats in Tanzania but data available in research and church mission centres suggests that there are about 1500 dairy goats of different breeds and stages of maturity. This figure is very low compared with the local goat population of over six million given by MALD (1984). However, it must be stressed that local goats are also milked particularly in areas where cattle are not kept. The potential of the dairy goat to the livestock industry is based on the following:

as the substitute "poor man's cow", it can easily be kept in urban and poor rural communities to supply milk, meat and skin

male dairy goats can be meaningfully used for crossbreding with local goats to increase milk yield and improve meat production potential (growth rate and slaughter weight)

it is an ideal animal for research in the field of nutrition and dairy science because of its small size.

Previous research on dairy goats in Tanzania

The indigenous goat population comprises the East African goat type characterised by its small size and low milk yield (Kyomo, 1986). In the late 1930s, Kamorai goats were imported to provide milk for the large Asian community brought into the country to work for the British government. However, interest in dairy goats by local indigenous small-scale farmers started to surface in densely populated areas only in the early 1960s following the successful introduction of Saanen goats at St. Constantine College in Northern Tanzania. From 1960 to 1980, various breeds of dairy goats were imported and kept in research stations and missionary schools. The breeds involved were mostly Saanen, Toggenburg, Anglo-nubian and Alpine.

Research on dairy goats has tended to concentrate on breeding. The first such programme was based in the central part of Tanzania (Mpwapwa Livestock Production Research Institute) and later shifted to West Kilimanjaro (in the north) and Malya (in the west) research centres, local goats are predominant in these areas.

The breeding programme aimed at increasing reproductive performance and milk yield under station conditions. The strategy involved crossbreeding with indigenous goats (Kyomo, 1986; Hidle, 1991; Das and Sendola, 1991). Preliminary results are summarised in Table 1. However, results must be accepted with caution as there are many complicating factors involved.

Table 1. Performance of dairy goat crosses in Tanzania.

Trait

SN x BLD

ANC

TGC

SNC

BLD

Reproductive
Kidding %

67

62

52

45

63

Twinning rate %

19

15

18

16

14

Pre-weaning mortality %

9

52

24

48

-
Birth weight (kg)

-

2.7

2.8

3.8

2.5

Growth rate (9 day)
Birth to 16 weeks

-

83

84

77

62

Birth to 72 weeks

-

41

43

45

-
Milk performance
Lactation length (days)

154

143

129

266

Yield (total kg)

105

85

142

123

Yield (kg/day)

0.7

0.6

1.1

0.5

1. see Das and Sendola (1991) for details
SN = Saanen.
BLD = Blended goats (55% Kamorai 30% Boer. 15% indigenous).
ANC = Anglo-Nubian crosses.
TGC = Toggenburg crosses.
SNC = Saanen crosses.

Recently raw data was sent to ILCA for detailed statistical analysis. Nevertheless, what is of general application is that compared with local goats, dairy goats and their crosses have a high production potential as measured in terms of milk yield and growth rate. Of note is that mortality rates in these goats is high (9-54%). The major problems of past dairy goat research programmes included too many lines in crosses with few numbers, inbreeding and cumbersome record keeping.

Perhaps more critical is the fact that breeding research programmes do not go hand in hand with research on management, nutrition and animal health. The lack of continuity due to the low financial base and core staff was also identified as a significant constraint.

Objectives of the current goat research programme

The main objectives of Sokoine University of Agriculture on-station (SUA) and on-farm research programmes are summarised in Table 2.

Table 2. Main objectives of the research at SUA and production on-farm at Mgeta.

SUA (on-station)

Mgeta (on-farm)

to produce and evaluate different crosses of local goats with Norwegian dairy goats; to test the performance of dairy goats under smallholder conditions;
to improve through selection the promising crosses; to adapt a dairy husbandry system suitable for small scale farmers;
to develop feeding and management packages for dairy goats; to improve living standards of smallholders; and
to disseminate (and follow up) the surplus stock to farmers and staff to provide facilities for on-farm research for students.
to develop research facilities for BSc, MSc and PhD students and staff.

1. Mgeta on-farm research was an off-shoot of the SUA (on-station) research and was not initially included in the original project write up.

Development of the research programme

Government and institution policies

The first and only existing Tanzanian livestock policy vaguely states that "the government will encourage dairy goat farming in suitable areas and that emphasis is to be placed on breeding, improving management and extension services" (MALD, 1984). In its long-term development programme (MALD, 1986), the Tanzanian Government states that "along with cattle dairying, pure milk goats will be emphasised in areas with a high population density and in marginal lands. In addition traditional goats were to be upgraded in selected areas. Further, emphasis will be placed on the distribution of bucks to selected villages for the upgrading programme as with assistance on the importation of bucks to improve blood lines and to avoid inbreeding will be necessary from time to time". Little financial support has been given to this sector by the government.

However, research institutions in the country have attempted to implement government policies by placing emphasis on development of dairy goat lines since the early 1960s (Des and Sendola, 1991). Sokoine University of Agriculture has also the mandate to carry out training, research and extension on all types of farm animals. This research has been justified as dairy goats are considered to be the "poor man's cow". Hence the development of the goat research project by the Department of Animal Science and Production has been in line with government policy. It has also been felt by the department that these dairy goats could be meaningfully used for research and training of undergraduate and postgraduate students in the field of dairy science.

Conditions at SUA and Mgeta

The experimental dairy farm at SUA in Morogoro is situated at an altitude of 600 m above sea level. The climate is semi-arid tropical. The average minimum and maximum day temperatures are 19.40.7 and 30.70.5 Celsius and annual precipitation is 811179 mm (10-year data from SUA weather stations 1981-91). Forages in the area are generally characterised by fast maturing types and hence poor quality, especially during the dry season from June to November.

Mgeta is situated about 60 km from SUA in the Uluguru mountains at an altitude of 1550-1750 m. The average annual temperatures range from 16 to 20 Celsius decreasing with altitude. The annual precipitation is about 1400 mm. The area is densely populated and hill-sides are intensively cultivated. Crops grown include maize, beans, vegetables (cabbage, cauliflower, leeks etc) and fruits (peaches, plums, pears etc). Small-scale pig-keeping is a common practice. Each household has three to five indigenous goats but cattle are not found in the area.

Evolution and development of the project at SUA (on-station)

In 1982, a project entitled "Improved feeding of Dairy cattle in the tropics" was initiated by the department and sponsored by the Norwegian Agency for International Development (NORAD) with the aim of developing packages of management and feeding of dairy cattle. In early 1983, a dairy goats sub-project component was included. A total of 63 goat kids of the Norwegian Landrace breed were imported for crossbreeding purposes. The initial intention was to develop crosses with local goats with fair potential for milk production in Tanzania's semi-arid conditions. Thirty-eight local goats and 13 breeding bucks were used in the breeding programme. With the enthusiastic atmosphere of management in the early days of the project, these goats did quite well. However, at the later stages, high mortalities and low reproductive performance were recorded. This, coupled with few numbers of animals per cross line, necessitated the maintenance of only one line, 50% Norwegian and 50% local blood (half-bred). Thus at SUA, the project since 1988 has maintained a half-bred herd and will continue to mate them inter se. of June 1992, there were 82 mature does and 38 female kids; these numbers indicate a slow development process.

Mgeta (on-farm)

It was hypothesised that pure Norwegian goats were not adaptable to the high ambient temperatures of Morogoro. However, SUA did not have an alternative site for on-station research and therefore resorted to an on-farm research approach. The Mgeta highlands were selected for several reasons including proximity to the SUA campus (about 60 km), its high altitude (>1600 m) and hence pleasant cool climate and all year-round availability of forages and vegetable wastes. A very important consideration in selection was the local farmers' experience with stall-feeding local goats and pigs and their expressed interest in goat milk production.

Having identified interested farmers, 10 pregnant half-bred (Norwegian and Tanzania cross) does were transferred to Mgeta in May 1988 to the first five farmers while 10 other pregnant goats were transferred to the second five farmers in May 1990. In addition, the remaining 10 pure Norwegian does were also distributed to the first five farmers. Thereafter, follow up was made on feeding, management, breeding, record keeping, growth, health and milk production through monthly visits. Three pure Norwegian bucks were placed in Mgeta (about one for every three farmers) at three centres and were rotated between these centres and replaced every three years.

Project administration

Initially, a multidisciplinary team that included a human nutritionist, a sociologist, an economist, a breeder, a veterinarian, a forestry biologist and an animal nutritionist was consulted. This team was later reduced to three, namely an animal nutritionist, a breeder and a veterinarian, to keep the many conflicting interests among the scientists during the initial stages of the project manageable.

Results and observations

Table 3 outlines the present management of dairy goats in Mgeta compared to that of the SUA experimental farm. It appears that the feeding in Mgeta was superior to that of SUA experimental farm in the amounts and quality of green fodder available and also in the more liberal provision of concentrates. The feeding of horticultural vegetable by-products especially cabbage should be noted. Chemical analysis at SUA showed that cabbage leaves were extremely digestible and had a high content of protein, squalling that of concentrates. Another notable development was that farmers paid particular attention to providing water to goats.

Table 3. Dairy goat management at SUA experimental farm and Mgeta highlands.

Element in management

SUA Experimental farm

Mgeta Highlands on-farm

1. Feeding

Grazing 4-5 hrs/day 0-7 hrs day

Indoor cuts Restricted amount of Guatemala grass and Leucaena leucocephala Abundant amounts of wild grasses, herbs and vegetable wastes

Abundant amounts of indigenous tree forages (eg mulberry)

Abundant amounts of introduced Leucaena, Guatemala grass, Setaria

Concentrate (kg day)

Kids 0.2-0.3 0.3-0.6

Milkers 0.6 during the whole lactation 0.6 per litre of milk

Bucks 0.5 year-round 0.5-1.0 during mating only

Watering Available for 1 hr after grazing Lukewarm water in morning and evening
2. Housing

Floor Concrete, cleaned weekly Concrete, cleaned weekly (4 farmers)

Elevated wooden floor (no cleaning) Elevated and cleaned weekly (9 farmers)

Elevated and no cleaning (one farmer)

Space Crowded Sufficient

Roofs Iron sheets Iron sheets or grass
3. Kid rearing

0.7 days Suckle throughout Suckle throughout

First weaning-week Suckle overnight only or bucket feeding only Suckle overnight or suckle all day and separate at night

Weaning 4 months of age but some kids still too low in weight 2-3 months

From one month Concentrate and cut grass Concentrate and cut grass

Start grazing 4 months 2-3 months
4. Preventive treatments

Acaricide (dipping) Once/week 1-2 times/month

Deworming Monthly Monthly

Vaccination FMD Yearly Yearly

Heptavac-p Yearly Yearly

Hoof trimming Yearly Every 2-4 weeks
5. Records Erratic Less erratic - records are kept by the farmers themselves on milk yield, milk sales, animal sales, mating dates, breeding, treatment end deaths purchase of feeds

The most important difference to emerge between kid-rearing at SUA versus Mgeta was the level of housing hygiene. At SUA the kids were kept mainly in doors up to four months of age. They shared the pens with dams overnight or were kept in overcrowded kid pens. The kids at Mgeta spent most of their early life outdoors during the day and had free access to young grass.

The data in Table 3 on preventive treatments indicated no differences between SUA and Mgeta except for incidences of hoof trimming. Hoof trimming in itself is important, as bad hoofs cause discomfort to the animal and may eventually lead to foot-rot. Furthermore, the frequency of hoof trimming at Mgeta was an indicator of the very careful attention given to the goats by farmers. Despite similar preventive treatments, SUA goats were observed to have more coughing and respiratory problems and larger worm burdens than Mgeta goats.

Tables 4 and 5 show the development of the Norwegian dairy goats and their crosses at SUA farm and in Mgeta, respectively.

Table 4. Flock development at SUA experimental farm (female only).

 

Pure Norwegian

Ten Norwegian crosses

Adults

Kids

Total

Adult

Kids

Total

1983

0

16

16

0

0

0

1984

16

41

57

0

0

0

1985

43

22

65

3

29

32

1986

39

4

43

27

9

36

1987

17

1

18

33

39

75

1988

13

0

134

61

28

89

1989

0

0

0

77

263

103

1992

-

-

-

825

38

120

1. In 1983 and 1984 16 and 41 female goat kids were imported from Norway
2. Excludes 10 pregnant does transferred to Mgeta in 1988.
3. Excludes 10 pregnant does transferred to Mgeta in 1990.
4. Three more females died and remaining transferred to Mgeta.
5 Excludes about 25 females culled

Table 5. Development of the female flock in Mgeta from the original 20 half-breeds and 10 punt Norwegian goats.

Breed

1989

1990

June 19921,2,3

Pure Norwegian

Adult

7

5

0


Kids

3

2

2


Total

10

7

2

87.5% and 93.5 Norwegian

Adult

0

0



Kids

0

2



Total

0

2

18

75.0% Norwegian

Adult

0

6



Kids

7

16



Total

7

22

25

50% Norwegian

Adult

10

22



Kids

2

5



Overall

12

27

15


Total

129

58

60

1. Plus 21 male bucks to be sold in 1992.

2. Since the project started 54 males (75% Norwegian and above) and 13 females have been sold for breeding.

3.25 people have used the project bucks to upgrade their local goats.

At SUA, the 53 Norwegian female kids imported during 1983 and 1984 had produced 65 Norwegian females by October 1985. However, over the following three years the number was drastically reduced. The 10 females remaining by May 1989 were transferred to the five Mgeta dairy goat keepers.

During the same period 1983-84, the crossbreeding programme at SUA was more successful. From 38 local mothers a total of 142 crossbred females (excluding the 21 taken to Mgeta) had been produced. The slow population increase of half-brads from 1990 was partly due to the reduction of local goats from 40 to 18 in 1990 and the high mortality rates. More than 40 farmers have purchased goats for breeding from SUA.

At Mgeta the number of crossed females increased to 60 up to June 1992 indicating a notable prolificacy of the transferred crosses and three local does (Table 5). The Mgeta farmers have sold about 54 males and 13 females to non-project farmers. In addition, 25 farmers used project bucks for upgrading their local goats.

Tables 6s and 7 show the performances of the animals at SUA experimental farm and Mgeta of does and kids, respectively. It is obvious from Table 6 that the lactation period at SUA was very short for all breeds. For Norwegian goats and their crosses, the period was 50% longer than that for local goats. The total yield of the crosses was 86% higher than that for the locals, while the Norwegians produced 50% more than the crosses due to their higher daily yield.

Table 6. Performance of does at SUA farm and at Mgeta.

 

SUA farm

Mgeta

Norwegian

Crosses

Local

Norwegian

Kidding interval (days)

370130

323122

291107

37499

Lactation period (days)

17489

168+99

11464

29938

Lactation yield (kg)2

194132

128110

6952

33384

Yield per day (kg)

1.10.4

0.80.3

0.60.2

1.10.21

1. See Kiango (1988) Madsen et al (1990) and Nkungu (1991) for details. 2. Excludes milk suckled by kids in the 2-3 months of suckling.

Table 7. Summary of kid performance at SUA farm and at Mgeta.


Birth wt (kg)

Pre-weaning growth rate (g/day)

Mortality %

SUA farm
Norwegian

2.00.6

4520

33(6)

Tanz x Norwegian

2.10.5

6017

17(7)

Mgeta
100% N

2.50.3

11637

-

87.5% N

2.80.5

9530

-

75% Norwegian

2.70.4

11828

-

50% Norwegian

2.60.5

1288

-

Overall

2.70.4

11418

8(7)

1. Figures in brackets show adult mortality rates. See Kiango (1988) Madsen et al (1990) and Nkungu (1991) for details.

The crosses in Mgeta were superior to all breeds at SUA especially when their length of lactation and total milk yield was considered. Crossbreds in Mgeta gave 2.5 times more milk than goats at SUA. The data on kid performance in Table 7 show that kids at SUA had low birth weights, low growth rates and very high mortality rates compared to goat kids at Mgeta.

Evaluation of the research programme (on-station)

The performance of the pure Norwegian breed at SUA (Tables 6 and 7) clearly shows that this breed was not viable in the semi-arid conditions at SUA However, the half-bred crosses were able to multiply and produce at a moderate level under the same conditions. On-station, the main problem encountered was the lack of consistent management in terms of health and provision of feeds. This was a consequence of a limited financial base, unavailability of concentrates and a general lack of seriousness of the field workers among other considerations. The inadequate record keeping on animal health and milk production also posed a problem. However, this is usually evident when a large herd of small ruminants is under observation. Difficulties in the control of breeding, limited numbers of scientific staff and poor housing facilities were additional problems encountered.

Mgeta (on-farm)

The goat research and development at Mgeta has been more successful and this can be attributed to the positive affects of climate on the health of the animals, forage quality and feed intake. Excellent management by the farmers was also a contributing factor. This management (Table 3) has been developed gradually through continuous close contact and dialogue between the farmers, the SUA staff and the extension workers. The training itinerary included intro ductory courses on goat husbandry and health (five days) after farmer selection.

Farmers training encompassed various topics including goat management, feeding and pasture, breeding, economics, milk by-products and record keeping (three days for each topic). Other aspects of the training were on advanced animal health (14 days twice a year at SUA). Hand-outs on most areas of dairy goat keeping in the Kiswahili language were also given and monthly visits were organised to facilitate exchange of views and advice. The effectiveness of researcher/farmer linkages was due to the small number of farmers involved. The interest shown by the farmers themselves and the fact that the area had no dairy cattle was of special significance to the project. Experiences elsewhere in Tanzania have shown that people will tend not to milk goats if they have cows.

When the responsibility of the project was handed over to the farmers, the construction and maintenance of the goat houses, purchases of the animals (US$ 20-30) and their feeding became their responsibility. The role of SUA researchers subsequently remained more in the area of organisation, training and advice, with the details of implementation being left to the farmers, individual decision and ideas. In 1990, the dairy goat farmers at Mgeta organised a dairy goat keepers society, where acaricides, disinfectants, antihelminthics, feeds and lime and salt are procured and sold by the society to goat keepers inside and outside the project.

Since the project assumed full responsibility of the breeding programmes the bucks at the three centres belong to the project. Overall distribution of dairy goats to farmers outside the project in Mgeta has been slow, mainly due to three fundamental reasons: although breeding bucks had been stationed in three different villages for communal use in the up-grading of local goats, farmers felt that this phase was too long a process. Secondly, some farmers waited to receive goats from SUA erroneously believing that the only way to start was through assistance from SUA. Finally, project participants did not appreciate that by using the improved bucks they could eventually produce almost equally good dairy goats. However, public meetings will be held to help clarify this situation.

Importance of the research programme

One of the greatest contributions of the research programme has been the dissemination of the knowledge among Tanzanians on the role and importance of dairy goats. This has been reflected in the numerous enquiries about the programme:

requests for purchase of bucks and does (currently demand is very high and has exceeded supply)

fast disposal of goats earmarked for culling

other institutions have embarked on similar projects, e.g. the Anglican Church in Morogoro and the Uyole Agricultural Centre in Mbeya Region

groups of farmers have urged the department to replicate the project in other areas, e.g. Iringa Region and Kilombero District of Morogoro Region

regular visits by government officials and their guests

the project has been used for training purposes. A large number of special projects for first degree studies (17), Master of Science (4) and Doctor of Philosophy (2) have been undertaken.

Although no empirical figures are presented in this paper, farmers have had increased earnings from the sale of milk and live goats and the nutritional status of infants in families has been improved. This aspect will be a future project activity.

Future research programmes

The future of the research programme largely depends upon financial support. Funds allocated to the project have been small (US$ 8000). However, from experiences obtained so far it is envisaged that priority will be focused on-station and on-farm.

The main future objectives at SUA (on-station):

to increase the level of Norwegian blood in the goats from the current 50% to 75% to maximise their potential for milk production

to assess ways of reducing kid mortality

to study the influence of partial suckling in kid rearing system on kid survival rate, growth and milk production of does

to continue with selection in the present flock and to follow-up the performance of goats bought by farmers from SUA under lowland conditions

to continue bringing new genotypes into the pool to avoid inbreeding.

The work at Mgeta (on-farm) is expected to continue with the following primary objectives:

to increase the number of participating farmers

to encourage/motivate other farmers to use the available bucks for up-grading after clarification in village public meetings and field days

to study socio-economic aspects of dairy goats keeping and its complimentarily with other farm activities

to further collect and accumulate information for evaluating the impact of up-grading on production and reproduction traits. Additional influences of non-genetic factors on performance will be quantified. When resources allow, the project will be replicated elsewhere.

References

Das S M and Sendola D S C. 1991. Small ruminant research highlights. Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock Development and Cooperatives, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Hidle T. 1991. Rearing of goat kid, at Mgadu Dairy Farm. MSc thesis, Agricultural University of Norway, As, Norway. 130 pp.

Kiango S M. 1989. Some factors influencing performance of dairy goats at Magadu Farm. BSc Special Project, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. 67 pp.

Kurwijila R L. 1988. Some reflections on milk supply and consumption statistics in Tanzania with particular reference to the role of the traditional cattle herds. Proceedings of Tanzania Society of Animal Production 15:216-242.

Kyomo M L. 1986. Past and present research on goat and sheep breeding in Tanzania. In: Adeniji K O and Kategile J A (eds), Proceeding of the Workshop on the improvement of small ruminant, in Eastern and Southern Africa held Nairobi, Kenya, 18-22 August 1986. OAU/STRC, Nairobi and IDRC, Canada.

Madsen A Nkya R Mtenga L A and Kifaro G C. 1990. Dairy goats for small scale farmers: Experiences in Mgeta Highlands. Proceedings of Tanzania Society of Animal Production. 17:48-58

MALD. (Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development). 1984. Tanzania Livestock Policy. Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock development, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

MALD. (Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development).1986. The National Livestock Census Preliminary Release. Ministry of Agriculture Livestock Development, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

MALD. (Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development).1987. Preliminary review of the ruminant livestock industry. Marketing Development Bureau, D S M 1987 R5/87. Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Nkungu D R. 1991. Performance of dairy goat, in Mgeta. BSc Special Project, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. 95 pp.


Previous Page Top of Page Next Page